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Dick and Carey Model

Page history last edited by Maricela Burns 8 years, 2 months ago

Cooperative Learning Project:

Instructional Design Model Comparison

EDTC 6321

Fall 2012 


Members of Team One 

Lorrie G. - Jose B. - Katy L. - Maricela G. - Jaime V.


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References     Group Members     Meeting Notes     Rough Drafts     Instructional Unit Feedback




by Katy Lu



Adapted from Dick and Carey, 1990

Source: http://starsedet703.wikispaces.com/ADDIE+Flavor



The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model for Designing Instruction


The Dick and Carey model is an instructional systems design model created by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. The model was originally published in 1978 in their book entitled the Systematic Design of Instruction. It is learner-centered and one of the best known models. This model was mainly designed for the purpose of serving the classroom setting in educational institutions and was greatly influenced by Robert Gagne’s conditions of learning and from a cognitivist, behaviorist, and constructivist interpretation (Dick & Carey, 1996). Their work is based on the behaviorist view that there is a predictable link between a stimulus and the response it produces in a learner. The system approach model views instruction as a systematic process in which every component is crucial to successful learning. The model is made up of ten stages and based on a reductionist perspective, which emphasizes breaking instruction down into smaller components. Each model component has an input and an output. It is critical, none can be skipped. All the steps in this instructional systems design model should be employed in order to design, develop, evaluate, and revise instruction (Dick & Carey). 


This model consists of nine steps which are:


1. Assess need to identify instructional goals to identify what it is the learners are expect to able to do.

2. Conduct instructional analysis to determine step by step what learners are doing.

3. Analyze learners and context to identify learners’ present skills

4. Write performance objectives to specific what it is learners will be able to do.

5. Develop assessment instruction to develop a criteria referenced assessment.

6. Develop instructional strategy to develop strategies in pre- instructional activities.

7. Develop and select instruction to use instructional strategies to produce the instruction.

8. Design and conduct formative evaluation to collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction.

9. Revise instruction to use the data.


According to Dick and Carey, a system is technically a set of interrelated parts, all of which work together toward a defined goal.  The parts of the system depend on each other for input and output, and the entire system uses feedback to determine if its desired goal has been reached (Dick & Carey, 1996). Dick and Carey stress that by using their Systems Approach model designers are guided to complete their analysis and decide what needs to be taught to whom and how before selecting a medium. 


Advantages of applying the Dick & Carey Model are:

•             Provides emphasis on sequencing and organizing content.

•             Provides guidance through the design phase of instruction.

•             Adjusts well for changes in theory and technology.

•             Applied in nearly any content.


Disadvantages include:

•             Learning is non-linear.

•             Presumes that learning can be predictable and reliable.

•             Does not allow for mistakes.

•             Too rigid and too many stages.

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